Liver Diseases and Surgery
The liver is an organ, whose size is the size of a football. It located just under the rib cage on the right side of your abdomen. The liver is necessary to digest food and rid the body from toxic substances.
Liver disease can be inherited. Or, liver problems can be caused by a variety of factors that damage the liver, such as Viruses, Alcohol abuse and Obesity.
By the time, conditions that damage the liver can led to scarring (cirrhosis), which can lead to liver failure, a life-threatening condition. But early treatment may give the liver time to heal.
Liver disease dose not cause completely clear signs and symptoms. But the most important signs and symptoms of liver disease may include:
- Yellowing of the skin or eyes (Jaundice)
- Pain and swelling in the abdomen
- Swelling of the legs and ankles
- Itching of the skin
- Dark urine
- Pale stools
- Fatigue or Vomiting
- Loss of appetite
- Tendency to bruise easily
There are many causes of live disease:
Parasites and viruses can infect the patient’s liver, causing inflammation that impairs liver function. Viruses that cause liver damage can spread through blood or water, or close contact with an infected person. The most common types of liver infections are hepatitis viruses, and they include:
- Hepatitis A virus
- Hepatitis B virus
- Hepatitis C virus
- Abnormalities of the immune system
Diseases in which the immune system attacks certain parts of the body (autoimmune) can affect the liver. Examples of autoimmune diseases of the liver include:
- Autoimmune hepatitis
- Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
- Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
- Genetic factors:
Inheriting one abnormal gene from one or both parents can cause different substances to accumulate in the liver, leading to liver damage. Examples of Hereditary liver diseases include:
- Wilsons Diseases
- Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
- Cancer and other growths include:
- Liver cancer
- Bile duct cancer
- Hepatic Adenoma
There are other common causes of liver disease including the following:
- Fat accumulation in the liver (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease)
- Certain prescription or medicines available without a prescription and some herbal compounds
Factors that may increase the risk of developing liver disease include:
- Excessive alcohol use
- Type 2 Diabetes
- Tattoos or body piercings
- Drug injection
- Exposure to other people’s blood and body fluids
- Harmful and unsafe intercourse
- Exposure to certain chemicals or toxins.
- Having a family history of liver disease
The goal of surgery is to remove the liver, or part of it, when there is a need to remove tumors from the liver. The majority of liver cancers start in liver cells called Hepatocytes. Cancer caused by damage to these cells called Primary Liver Cancer, Hepatocellular, Carcinoma, or Hepatoma.
Theis type of cancer can be removed by Hepatectomy, the cancer is localized in the liver, which is considered eradicable.
Localized cancer is diagnosed when there is no evidence that the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, or to any other part of the body, and when laboratory tests show that the liver is working as it should.
Liver resection is the only solution to treat patients as it provides a long life. For patients who have not undergone this operation, their health condition will be very difficult.
Is the safe and effective removal of a liver mass (benign or cancerous). Compared to the open procedure. The Endoscopic approach provides patient with smaller incisions, allowing for faster recovery and better cosmetic results. Patients often experience less pain, as they can return to their normal activities sooner.
What happens during this procedure, and how long does it take?
After the patient sleeps under general anesthesia, between three to seven small incisions are made to remove the liver mass. Depending on the number and location of the lesions and the amount of liver that should be remove, the procedure can take anywhere from one to seven hours.
What is the required preparation before the procedure?
Patients are encouraged to maintain a physical active lifestyle and to reduce alcohol intake in the weeks leading up to surgery. The patient will be interviewed by the surgeon to follow the specific and required steps prior to the procedure. Most patients will be given gentle bowel preparation to facilitate movement of the colon during the procedure. Gentle bowel preparation also helps avoid constipation after surgery.
What is the recovery time?
Patients will spend from one to six nights in the hospital depending on the extent of the liver operation. Based on this procedure, the surgeon will discuss the details of the postoperative recovery period with each patient. Since the liver regenerates, recovery will depend on how much the patient’s liver needs to regrow. Most patients suffer from severe fatigue for two to four weeks after the operation. Pain is controlled with ibuprofen and low-dose narcotic pain medications.
What can affect the result?
Usually, the recovery is easy for physically stronger patients after the operation. Walking for 15-30 minutes a day before and after surgery speeds up recovery. Patients should limit the intake of alcohol and other substances that are toxic to the liver before and after the operation. The doctor will help determine which supplements or medications may harm the liver.
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