Specialized Center for Cardiology in Turkey
Definition of Cardiology
The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of cardiovascular diseases is called “cardiology” and the specialist doctors working in this department are called “cardiologists “. Cardiologists treat diseases such as heart attacks, cardiac arrhythmia, heart failure, and high blood pressure. In cases that do not respond to drug treatments, doctors perform interventions such as angiography.
What diseases are involved in cardiology?
The heart is one of the most important organs of the body, and its job is to pump enough blood into the body. However, a heart defect known as the major disorder, in which the heart cannot pump blood needed by the body for various reasons, is called heart failure. The Cardiology Department diagnoses and treats heart failure and related diseases as follows:
- Blood hypertension
- Ischemic heart disease
- Acute coronary syndrome
- Aortic insufficiency
- Coronary insufficiency
- Coarctation of aorta
- Infarct of myocardium
- Pulmonary insufficiency
- Tricuspid valve stenosis
- Myopathia cordis
- Pericardial effusion
- Cardiac tamponade
- Primary cardiac tumors
- Cardiac arrhythmia and cardiac arrest
- Atrial myxoma
- Atrial fibrillation
- Peripheral arterial disorders
- Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
What are the procedures for screening for heart disease?
After listening to complaints from patients presenting to the cardiology department, and after a physical examination, and suspicions of diseases from the doctor, many tests are performed, primarily blood tests as needed.
Tests and examinations does cardiology perform
The main tests and characteristics in the cardiology department are:
Blood tests are performed, as are heart enzymes such as creatine, troponin and hormone levels. If there is a problem with the heart, the values on these tests may be high. Additionally, cholesterol and blood sugar levels are also checked, which are dangerous factors.
Electrocardiography is a diagnostic method in which electrical activity of the heart is recorded with the help of electrodes attached to the skin. In this way the heart rate can be diagnosed, signs of hypoxia, blood supply to the heart muscle, and signs of a heart attack if present.
Disturbance may not occur due to the short duration of the normal ECG. In such cases where cardiac arrhythmia is suspected, the ECG is continuously performed for 24 to 48 hours with a special device. It is a mobile phone sized named holter, usually worn around the neck or on the waist. While the device is on the body, no mobile phone or other electronic devices are used and the patient cannot shower.
The echo, known as cardiac ultrasound, is the method used to detect a movement disorder in the heart walls that arises as a result of the death of heart muscle tissue.
Evaluation of arteries and determination of stenosis if present is done with the help of X-ray using a special stain called angiography. A thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into the thigh, arm, or neck and a visible X-ray dye is injected into the arteries through the catheter. Thus, blood flow can be depicted in the veins. It can also be used for diagnosis and treatment.
The procedure is to record an image of the heart with the aid of radioactive material that is given to the patient with a special camera. Indicates whether or not heart muscle has sufficient blood flow.
A stress test is preferred in diagnosing the prevalence of coronary artery disease, and also in determining the severity of the disease.
Cardiac and coronary artery disease can be diagnosed by cardiac catheterization in which a gas biopsy of the heart is performed and the pressure of the heart chambers is measured.
Scintigraphy of myocardial perfusion
It’s a radio-nuclear imaging technology made with the aid of gamma rays.
Today the cardiology department can be considered as a non-surgical department of the heart, since it includes non-surgical diagnostic methods and patient monitoring, and invasive cardiology, which includes interventional methods. The Department of Non-invasive Cardiology is primarily established with state-of-the-art devices to diagnose and monitor heart disease. The most common of these devices is the 64-section computed tomography (CT) machine.
In addition to the other devices used in this field, the following are also available:
- Echocardiograms, not found in normal echocardiograms, have advantages that can be assessed at the tissue level and under pressure.
- Stress testing, which can apply all modern analysis methods and perform value analysis in real and average time.
- A heart rate monitor (Holter), which monitors the heart rate of patients for a period of 24 to 48 hours.
- A blood pressure Holter that monitors a patient’s blood pressure for 24 hours.
- The myocardial perfusion device is characterized by the latest features that show how well the heart muscle is nourished by the vessels.
- The MRI machine is capable of performing cardiac recordings to diagnose and follow up on cardiovascular diseases.
When coronary angiography is needed, flattpanel angiography devices are used which are available in a limited number of centers around the world and in Turkey. Using the device, veins found throughout the heart can be easily visualized.
Risk factors and methods of preventing coronary disease
Coronary artery diseases, also known as ischaemic heart disease, are the most common group of diseases in the world and cause the most deaths. The most common are stable angina pectoris, unstable angina pectoris and sudden cardiac death, and myocardial infarction is a group of coronary heart diseases.
The most common symptoms of these disorders are shoulder or chest pain, and pain that is spread to the arm, back, neck, or jaw.
Risk factors for coronary heart disease include:
- High blood pressure
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Lack of exercise
- High blood cholesterol
- Excessive alcohol intake
Coronary heart disease can be prevented by exercising regularly, organizing a healthy diet, maintaining the person’s optimal weight and not smoking.
In some cases, medications for high cholesterol, diabetes, or high blood pressure may also be helpful. Treatment programs have the same routine as prevention studies. Antiplatelet antagonists, such as beta blockers, aspirin, and nitroglycerin are also recommended as additives. When the disease has reached serious proportions, methods such as percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass surgery are used.
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